Cuma, Haziran 12, 2015

Foco Theory


"Most theories of revolution seem to agree that certain preconditions must be met if a revolutionary situation is to arise.1 The peculiar contribution of Ernesto Che Guevara to understanding revolutions is that according to him such preconditions can be created [1: 4].2 Few men in the world today would be better qualified than Guevara to sustain such theory with empiri-cal evidence from his own participation in revolutions. After his experience in Guatemala, Cuba, the Congo and, perhaps, other parts of the world, Guevara was considered, by friends and enemies alike, as one of the world's top-ranking guerrilla fighters of the twentieth century. By the time he started a new daring experiment in Bolivia he was reckoned as one of the most articulate theorists in the field. The death of Guevara in the moun-tains of Bolivia on October 9, 1967, brought commotion and mixed feelings to his enemies and admirers the world over."


Gerilla Savaşı: Bir Yöntem
Ernesto Che Guevara
Yar Yayınları, Eylül 1989
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Guerrilla Warfare
Che Guevara
Introduction to the Bison Books Edition by Marc Becker
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Bolivya Günlüğü
Che Guevara
Eriş Yayınları
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Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare: Doctrine, Practice and Evaluation
JOSE A. MORENO
Most theories of revolution seem to agree that certain preconditions must be met if a revolutionary situation is to arise.1 The peculiar contribution of Ernesto Che Guevara to understanding revolutions is that according to him such preconditions can be created [1: 4].2 Few men in the world today would be better qualified than Guevara to sustain such theory with empiri-cal evidence from his own participation in revolutions. After his experience in Guatemala, Cuba, the Congo and, perhaps, other parts of the world, Guevara was considered, by friends and enemies alike, as one of the world's top-ranking guerrilla fighters of the twentieth century. By the time he started a new daring experiment in Bolivia he was reckoned as one of the most articulate theorists in the field. The death of Guevara in the moun-tains of Bolivia on October 9, 1967, brought commotion and mixed feelings to his enemies and admirers the world over. His enemies were exultant, first because the dreaded Guevara was dead, and second because his death was 'clear evidence' that his theories were wrong. His admirers were sad because he was dead, but were also elated because the puzzle of his disappearance had been unraveled and because his death at the hands of Bolivian rangers trained by a U.S. military mission, far from being 'evidence' that his theories were wrong, was 'evidence' that they were right. In order to decide whether Guevara's theory of revolution was right or wrong a series of value judg-ments needs to be made and the final outcome will, naturally, be in line with these evaluative presuppositions. It is beyond the scope of this essay to enter such discussion. It is my intention to investigate, as dispassion-ately as I can, to what extent the empirical evidence of the Cuban and the Bolivian experiments proves or disproves the major generalizations of Guevara's theory of revolution. It is with mixed feelings that I approach the subject, first because it is quite difficult to enter such a study without taking sides, and second because of the scarcity of documents available to the writer. It goes without saying that whatever findings are presented in this paper are subject to further clarification and correction when more material with evidence relevant to this subject is made available to the public.
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Che Guevara: An Exploration of Revolutionary Theory
Jamie E. Hill
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An Historical Critique of the Emergence and Evolution of Ernesto Che Guevara's Foco Theory
MATT D. CHILDS
Abstract. This article provides an analysis of Ernesto Che Guevara's theory of guerrilla warfare, the foco. The numerous changes to the originalfoco thesis, as presented in Guerrilla Warfare (1960), are examined in detail covering two dozen articles, speeches, essays, interviews and books authored by Guevara, Castro and Debray while stressing their relation to national and international politics. The author argues that there was an apparent discourse between Cuban politics and the numerous changes in Guevara's writings. Juxtaposing changes to the foco theory from I960 to 1967, to Cuban historical events, reflects the political expedience of the i96os and the primary interests of the fidelistas, specifically Guevara.
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FROM CUBA TO BOLIVIA: GUEVARA’S FOCO THEORY IN PRACTICE
Joshua Johnson
Abstract – In order to account for Ernesto Guevara’s dramatic swing of fate from Cuba to Bolivia, it is necessary to explore his revolutionary theory developed in response to his experiences in the 1959 Cuban revolution. His foco theory, which places a high degree of primacy on the guerrilla band in creating the conditions for revolution, is starkly contrasted by an historical analysis of the Cuban revolution, where economic, social, and nationalistic forces combined to the benefit of Guevara and Castro. Exploring the political climate of Bolivia at the time of Guevara’s attempted insurrection, it becomes apparent that none of these forces were present for the exploitation of the guerrillas, which ultimately doomed the revolution and Guevara himself. Both the Cuban and Bolivian cases show the significance of socio-political factors in determining the success of an insurrection, and put the validity of Guevara’s foco theory into question.
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Che Guevara’s Enduring Legacy
Not the Foco But the Theory of Socialist Construction
Helen Yaffe
Che Guevara’s most enduring legacy in Cuba has been his indelible contribution to socialist political economy and economic management. Between 1959 and 1965, Guevara set up the budgetary finance system to prove that it was possible and necessary to develop consciousness and productivity simultaneously in the transition to socialism. The system was openly articulated as an alternative to the economic management system operating in the Soviet bloc. Thus, Guevara took up the challenge at the heart of the
revolutionary process: achieving economic development with equity from a position of underdevelopment without relying on capitalist mechanisms that would undermine collective consciousness and new social relations. His approach to this problem remains relevant today in Cuba, where his ideas are associated with the vitality of Cuban socialism. On the fiftieth anniversary of the Cuban Revolution, contemporary developments, reforms, and debates are still best analyzed in terms of their proximity to Guevara’s theory of socialist construction.
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Che in Bolivia: The “Revolution” That Failed
Robert F. Lamberg
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Reflections on Che Guevara’s Legacy
Richard Harris
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From Che to Marcos
Jeffrey W. Rubin
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Marksizm ve Gerilla Savaşı
Der. William J.Pomeroy
Eriş Yayınları
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Guevara, Debray, and Armed Revisionism
Lenny Wolff
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